Bottomland forests are generally used to describe forests which are comprised of both hardwood and softwood tree species that occur on low-elevation, alluvial floodplains or lower terraces of rivers and streams.(2) These forests are linear in character. The term “bottomland hardwoods” is generally used to describe both the dominant forest tree species and the major forest types that occur on floodplains. Riverine flooding and the succession that occurs after major flooding events are the major natural processes that drive this system. Very early-successional stages can be sparsely vegetated or dominated by herbaceous vegetation.

Flora

Dominant in wet sites:

Black cottonwood Oregon ash
Red alder White alder
Willow

Dominant on drained sites, natural levees or high terraces:

Oregon ash Oregon maple (3)

Fauna

Black tailed deer Red fox
American beaver Wood ducks
Bald eagle Hawks
Great horned owl Flicker
Woodpeckers Warblers
Other songbirds Rough skinned newt
Pacific tree frogs